Lithograph in colour, 31 1/2 x 43 1/2 in (80 x 110 cm); minor restoration to central creases and small tears; linen backed, very fine.
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Italian Fascism primarily followed the economic model of corporatism to organise capital and labour interest groups into trade unions and employer associations such as agriculture, industry, commercial trade, professionals and artists, as well as banks and credit associations. These trade associations represented the interests of their profession at all levels, thus in theory alleviating pressures between social classes and maximising production. In this model, the economy was managed nationally by non-elected employers, workers and civil servants.
The political side of Fascist Corporatism enabled Mussolini’s goal to create a community with a strong collective identity that was both nationalistic and industrious. Mussolini promoted the idea that a corporatist state would help to further individual interests, arguing that they would be strengthened by inclusion within a group, or trade union. In fact, fascist corporatism offered perks to loyal supporters while seeking to subdue labour movements and punish political dissidents.
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The earth as modified by human action.
First edition thus (a previous version had been published ten years earlier under the title Man and Nature) of the first modern discussion of ecology and environmental issues. This copy bears several authorial manuscript corrections. A revised edition was posthumously published in 1885.