Letterpress poster in red, 21 ½ x 31 ½ in (55 x 80 cm); linen backed with minor repairs, otherwise fine.
US $386 €331
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County of the Isle of Ely, Public Air Raid Warning.
A very rare survival from the Second World War. During the war, Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely were strategic positions as home to 28 airfields for both the RAF and the USAAF. The flat topography, proximity to the coast and continental Europe made it an ideal location for runways and bases.
Air Raid Precautions (ARP) was set up in 1924, and was dedicated to the protection of civilians from the danger of air-raids. The extensive air raid warning system covered every village, town and city in the UK during WWII. In the Cold War, much of the same system was used to warn of nuclear attacks until it was decommissioned in 1993.
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The philosophy of necessity; or, the law of consequences; as applicable to mental, moral, and social science.
First edition. Bray (1811-84), a Coventry ribbon manufacturer, was converted to phrenology by George Combe, with whom he formed a close association; he was also close in early life to George Eliot and to Herbert Spencer. The Philosophy of Necessity was published during the Chartist ferment, when Bray was a firm adherent of Owenite social ideas, and active in the workers’ educational and cooperative movement in Coventry. His intention was to provide a natural philosophy, or a psychology, of ethics and social science, asserting the regularity and essential benevolence of natural laws, governing mind as well as matter: ‘…the laws of the moral world are, through the instrumentality of pleasure and pain, and of the definite constitution given to man by his Maker, as fixed and determinable as the laws of the physical world’ (preface). From this he derived - unlike Combe, and in the face of the individualism dominant in natural philosophy and theology in the 1840s, a social principle of cooperation. For a stress on Bray’s influence, and his significance as a precursor of the ‘incarnational social thought’ which was pervasive in Britain by the time of this edition, see Boyd Hilton The Age of Atonement (1988), pp. 324-5.
AN EARLY ANTI-RICARDIAN TRACT CALVERT, William John.
The demand for labour is wealth … Supplement to monopoly and taxation vindicated against the errors of the legislature.
Very rare first edition of Calvert’s supplement to his own work, Monopoly and taxation vindicated etc., published in 1821. Calvert wrote anonymously in the name of ‘a Nottinghamshire farmer’, but here uses his name. The supplement argues that Britain’s wealth and military success against France are derived from labour and productivity, which are driven by the high demand that wealth creates; should taxation be lowered and monopolies reduced, the result will be falling prices and a fall in demand, leading to catastrophes such as the famine in Ireland after the failure of the potato crop in 1816. Ricardo comes under fire for seeking payment of the national debt and reduction of taxes; so too do his forebears Adam Smith and Jean-Baptiste Say, the latter being found to be ‘constantly in error’. On the contrary, Calvert claims, the wealth of Britain is to be found in its national debt. Calvert ends his account with a sarcastic addendum in which he presents a ‘joke’ bill that foretells, in falsely optimistic terms, the flight of all money from Britain, there being no demand for it there.