France or Germany, late 12th century.
US $1274 €1146
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with readings and music for the feast of St. Clement (23 November); a complete vellum leaf, double columns of 37 lines written in two sizes of an early gothic liturgical script, dark brown ink, ruled lightly with plummet, 2-line initials in red, rubrics, neumes on four-line staves; recovered from a binding and with consequent creasing and staining, but generally in very good condition and entirely legible. 332 x 230 mm (written space 315 x 190 mm)
The final stage in the accurate placement of musical notation was the introduction of 4-line staves, and they came to be used in almost all music books from the thirteenth century onwards. The present fragment is a relatively early example of their use.
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LEIBNIZ, Gottfried Wilhelm.
Oeuvres philosophiques latines & françoises de feu. Tirées de ses manuscrits qui se conservent dans la bibliotheque royale a Hanovre et publiées par Mr. Rud. Eric Raspe. Avec une Préface de Mr. Kaestner.
First edition of Leibniz’ fundamental Nouveaux essais sur l’entendement humain, here published as part of the first collected edition of his philosophical works in French and Latin. The Nouveaux essais take up 496 of the 540 pages and offers one of the most important refutations of Locke’s Essay on Human Understanding: a defence of the existence of non-material substance (see N. Jolley, Leibniz and Locke), and a refutation of the conventional nature (‘il y a quelque chose de naturel dans l’origine des mots’, p. 241).
SCOTTISH DRAPER LEARNS HIS ACCOUNTS ALEXANDER, Thomas.
Three account books dated 1829-32 (‘Ledger’, ‘Journals’, ‘Waste Book’).
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